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The Impact of Colonization on the Role of the Nontraditional Native American Woman by Caitlin Howell, Fall caitlin at cs dot wisc dot edu The male paper is an analysis of the impact of Western European culture on Native American culture as it relates to social and sexual roles of Native American women. Specifically, I would like to examine the impact of the introduction of Western European society, which is characterized by a patriarchal power structure, on the status of female homosexuals and females who existed in male gender roles cross-gender roles in Native American tribes. What emerged as I examined sources for this paper was that, first, pre-colonial Native American society was a society which gave relatively equal status to males and females. Because of the equal distribution of power, it did not upset the power structure for women to identify with what Western European society defined as men's sexual or social roles, nor was it a threat for men to identify with women's social or native roles.
I have plenty of anger of my own, americaj of it for reasons they seem oblivious to. Autumn Why, my sisters and I repeatedly ask, are Indians not reckoned with? The U.
Most contemporary scholars believe the purpose of such brutal attacks was to acquire the land and resources of the Indians, and of course this did happened. Grahn 43 It is likely that white disapproval of homosexuality caused Native American homosexuals to disguise that part of their identity, and tribes gave white anthropologists and ethnographers the possibly mistaken impression that they shared their disapproval.
The impact of Native American gaming has been monumental, but non-gaming tribes have growing economies as well. Small wonder, perhaps, that homosexuals were often the first Indians killed, and that even when tribes were tolerated by the white people, their homosexuals were mocked and persecuted to the point that the homosexuals changed their behavior for the sake of their people's safety. After being conquered by patriarchal Western European-America, Native American culture exhibited somewhat predictable.
Heyle, and Emily J. Beach collected information in 76 Native American societies, and found that male homosexual activities were regarded favorably in 49 64 percent of the societies, and female homosexual activities were regarded favorably in 53 societies. It may also have provoked additional hostility from European Americans, as Judy Grahn points out in her analysis of the available information regarding the disappearance of homosexual Native Americans: The European soldiers, trappers, explorers, and settlers were contemptuous of homosexual traditions in their own cultures, and several centuries of persecution under the inquisition had taught them to deny all homosexuality.
Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, Paula Gunn Allen compares the cross-gender role to the conception of the modern American "dyke" and the role of women who engaged in sexual activity with other women to the conception of the modern American lesbian. The disappearance of the need for a cross-gender role can be attributed mostly to the feminist movement, which broadened the roles available to modern women. Factories seem to contradict Indian culture, but ironically, industry helps culture thrive.
I think I may look over my should to see if my shadow follow. These women are not considered masculine, or labeled "cross-gender females" or transvestites.
Paula Gunn Allen explains: Among American Indians, spirit-related persons are more closely related than blood-related persons. Burns recollects, "I was like a lot of Indian people who came to the city. Winter For example, in the of the tribes of the Bering Strait mentioned earlier, a woman who has taken on the male gender role is not described as cross-gender, but as having made a "homosexual crossover".
Do we not count when the talk turns to racism?
However, the overall statistic for the United States has also steadily grown over this span of time. The Native American amreican is not evenly spread across the nation.
Many s describe cross dressing and sodomy in the same sentence, giving no evidence for the latter. In the future, perhaps Native American feminists and lesbians will be strong enough in and mutual support, that they will be able to recreate a comfortable place for themselves on the American continents.
Where were my sisters? Browning, Christine. Sexuality itself was not embedded in Native American gender ideology. I found it depressing that these societies were obliterated in less than a century, and are slowly being rebuilt from what cultural ruins that remain.
It's not an accusation to say that we'll never understand one male on fundamental levels-it is simply a fact of our lives-as is the fact that almost all stores are owned by white men. Today, in the post-civil rights era, Native American societies struggle with centuries of sexism inherited from European America, and homosexual Native Americans attempt to reclaim their traditionally accepted status. Understanding this primary difference between American Indian values natiev modern Euro-American values is critical to understanding Indian familial structures and the context in which lesbians functioned.
InClellan S. Allen Conditions 70 The existence of the role of the cross-gender female allowed women who preferred the lifestyles of men to malees integrated into Native American society. It is native to recognize that retraditionalization efforts on the part of Indian women are often inconsistent with some goals of the current majority-culture women's movement. Blackwood 36 Before European Americans colonized the Americas, homosexuals had a normal, perhaps even respected, social position in Native American culture.
Is it okay to be racist towards us, but not the others? Automobile subassembly and plastic manufacturing are only two of the sectors in which the tribe is involved. Allen Conditions 30 When the daughter reached puberty, she would participate in the rituals that marked her as a man rather than a woman. Male-headed households are Brant The small and multiple identity of Native American lesbians and feminists le me to believe amrrican it is nearly impossible for either group to put together a group of their own with any ificant power base.
Katz, Jonathan. GrahnKatz Americn young woman's choice to take a cross-gender role was fully supported by Native American spiritual beliefs.
Behind the Trail of Broken Treaties. On the other hand, I don't mean to discount the value of organization for Native American lesbians and feminists.
The population of Native Americans however extends beyond those with this federal recognition. The Native American rights movement expressed outrage at the poverty and mistreatment of modern Native Americans, and called for retribution for the wrongs that European American had perpetrated against Native Americans and their culture. I really align myself with Indians first and gay people second.
The median age americam Native Americans and Alaskan Native is For example, it is acceptable in mainstream society for women to wear pants and possible for women to enter traditionally male occupations including law, medicine, politics, and engineering.
Blackwood 35 Women tended to control what went on within the home, while men were in charge of public positions of authority and contact with outsiders. Cameron commented, "I thought, you know, that I was the only lesbian Indian in the world Or else, I my not exist, except in my own natice.
In addition to these federal reservations, there are allotted lands, lands under restricted status, and state Indian reservations. This is in comparison to the American national unemployment rate of 6. The status of nztive and women was equal; therefore, for women to adopt men's roles was not a threat to male power.
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